If you have a item you like added to the list please feel free to
e-mail it to David
Ever wonder what all those strange, new words mean? Here is a useful
guide to the language of the Computer and the Internet.
Symbols Numbers A
| B | C | D | E
| F | G | H | I
| J | K | L | M
| N | O | P | Q
| R | S | T | U
| V | W | X | Y
Alternate or Alt Key
Boot or Booting
Cat 5/Category 5
Domain Name Address
E-Mail (Electronic Mail)
IEEE Printer Cable
Plug and Play
Start Up Disk
Wizard or Wizzard
||A file specification using the asterisk ( or
the star key) as a wildcard, which means you can perform some action on
the group of files you have chosen, any combination of file names (see
file name) and/or extensions (see extension). If you typed find *.doc
it would find all files that have a doc extension; while find *.* would
find all files in the sub-directory.
||Forward Slash (top of character leans to the
A character used for parameters that control the execution of a program.
If you typed find *.doc it would find all files with the doc extension but
only in that sub-directory while find *.doc /s would find all files with
the doc extension on the entire drive. see sub-directory
||Back Slash (top of character leans to the
A character used to separate directory names. When used as a leading character,
it means that the path specification begins from the topmost level for
that drive. Example c:\windows\my documents\Myfile.exe would be a
file that can be found on the C Drive in the sub-directory windows in the
sub-directory called favorites.
see sub-directory, path,
||An Ethernet standard for base band LANs
(local area networks) using twisted-pair cable carrying 10 or 100 Mbs (MegaBits
||The telephone number used by a subscriber to
gain access to an online service. see ISP.
||A free program produced and distributed by
Adobe Systems, Inc., for displaying and printing documents that are in
Portable Document Format. see PDF.
||In an e-mail program, a reference section
listing e-mail addresses and individuals' names. As a web page, an
informal e-mail or URL phone book. see e-mail, web page, URL
||A World Wide Web search site and portal hosted
by Digital Equipment Corporation. see portal
or Alt Key
||A key included on PC and other standard
keyboards that is used in conjunction with another key to produce some
special feature or function and is typically marked with the letters Alt.
||A ROM (Read Only Memory)
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) developed and
marketed by American Megatrends Inc. (AMI) for use in IBM-compatible
||A series of graphic images in GIF format,
displayed sequentially in a single location to give the appearance of a
moving picture. (see GIF)
(File Transfer Protocol)
||The ability to access a remote computer
system on which one does not have an account, using the internet's File
Transfer Protocol (FTP). Users have restricted access rights with
anonymous FTP and usually con only copy files to or from a public
directory, often named /pub, on the remote system.
(American National Standards Institute)
||A voluntary, non profit organization of
business and industry groups formed in 1918 for the development and
adoption of trade and communication standards in the United States.
||A computer program that scans a computer's
memory and mass storage to identify, isolate, and eliminate viruses, and
that examines in coming files for viruses as the computer receives them.
||A tape or disk containing files. The files
remain when the power is turned off. When you save a file you are saving
it to Archival Memory also known as Mass Storage. When you are working on
a file you are working in Volatile Memory if the file is not saved to
Archival Memory it will not be saved when you close the program. see
Mass Storage, Volatile Memory
||A file that contains a file or a set of
files, such as a program with its documentation and examples. They are
also called compressed or zipped files. They can be created and opened or
unzipped with WinZip, or PkZip.
(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)
||A large wide area network created in the
1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,
(ARPA renamed DARPA in the 1970s) for the free exchange of information
between universities and research organizations, although the military
also used this network for communications. In the 1980s MILNET, a separate
network, was spun off from ARPANET for use by the military. ARPANET was
the network from which the Internet evolved.
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
||A coding scheme using 7 or 8 bits that
assigns numeric values to up to 256 characters, including letters,
numbers, punctuation marks, control characters, and other symbols. ASCII
was developed in 1968 to standardize data transmission among disparate
hardware and software systems and is built into most minicomputers and all
PCs. By saving a file in ASCII it can be used by 2 different software
programs that do not open each others files.
||A document file in ASCII format, containing
characters, spaces, punctuation, carriage returns, and sometimes tabs and
an end-of-file marker, but no formatting information. Also called ACSII
file, text file, or text only file.
||This informs an operating system that a
particular filename extension is linked to a specific application.
(Advanced Technology Attachment)
||A disk drive implementation that integrates
the controller on the disk drive itself. There are several versions of
ATA, all developed by the Small Form Factor (SFF) Committee: ANSI group
X3T10's official name for the disk drive interface standard commonly known
as Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) (see IDE, ATA/IDE Hard Disk Drive)
Hard Disk Drive
(Advanced Technology Attachment) / (Integrated
||ATA and IDE or numerous other interpretations
are one and the same thing: a disk drive implementation designed to
integrate the controller onto the drive itself, thereby reducing interface
costs and making firmware implementations easier.
||A file that accompanies an e-mail message.
The file can be a document, an executable program, or a compressed file
containing more than one item, among other types of files.
||see Sound Card
||A special-purpose batch file (set of
commands) that is automatically carried out by the PC computer operating
system when the computer is started. The file contains basic startup
commands that help configure the system to installed devices and to the
||The data transfer capacity, or speed of
transmission, of a digital communications system as measured in bits per
(Bulletin Board System)
||A computer system equipped with one or more
modems or other means of network access that serves as an information and
message-passing center for remote users.
||A new software or hardware product, or one
that is being updated, that is ready to be released to users for testing
in real-world situations, before it is released to the general public.
(Basic Input/Output System)
||On PC-compatible computers, the set of
essential software routines that test hardware at startup, starts the
operating system, and supports the transfer of data among hardware
||The smallest unit of information handled by a
computer. One bit expresses a 1 or a 0 in a binary numeral, or a true or
false logical condition.
||A link to a Web page or other URL that a user
has stored in a local file folder in order to return to it later. (see
Favorites Folder) (see URL)
||The four most common boolean operator are
AND, OR, XOR, NOT. Boolean operators are often used a qualifiers in web
searches. For example if you were looking for a blue Ford truck you would
search for truck and ford and blue.
||A floppy disk that contains key system files
from a PC-compatible operating system and that can boot, or start, the PC.
Also called a Startup Disk. see startup disk
||The process of starting or resetting a
computer. When first turned on (cold boot) or reset (warn boot), the
computer executes the software that loads and starts the computer's more
complicated operating system and prepares it for use. Thus, the computer
can be said to pull itself up by its own bootstraps. Also called
||The portion of a disk reserved for the
bootstrap loader (the self-starting portion) of an operating system.
(Bits Per Second)
||The measure of tramission speed used in
relations to networks and communication lines.
||see Web Browser
||A set of hardware lines (conductors) used for
data transfer among the components of a computer system.
||A unit of data, today almost always
consisting of 8 bits. A byte can represent a single character, such as a
letter. a digit. or a punctuation mark. Because a byte represents only a
small amount of information, amounts of computer memory and storage are
usually given in Kilobytes (1,024 bytes), Megabytes (1,048,576), or
Gigabytes (1.073,741,824 bytes). (see Kilobytes) (see Megabytes) (see
||A special memory subsystem in which
frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access.
||A multi-pair (usually 4 pair) high
performance cable that consists of twisted pair conductors, used mainly
for data transmission. Note: The twisting of the pairs gives
the cable a certain amount of immunity from the infiltration of unwanted
interference. category-5 UTP cabling systems are by far, the most common
in the United States. Basic cat 5 cable was designed for characteristics
of up to 100 MHz. Category 5 cable is typically used for Ethernet networks
running at 10 or 100 Mbps. see UTP
||A type of CD-Rom that can be written on a CD
recorder and read on any CD-Rom drive. see CD-Rom
||A type of CD-Rom that can use a CD-RW disk
like a hard drive. Files written to this type of CD-Rom can be
erased, edited and deleted. CD-RW disks can only be read in a CD-RW
type of drive.
(Compact Disc Read-Only Memory)
||A form of storage characterized by high
capacity (roughly 650 megabytes) and the use of laser optics rather than
magnetic means for reading data.
||Intel's family of budget-priced microprocessor.
Celeron chips are based on the same P6 micro architecture as the Pentium
II processor. They include an integrated 128-KB cache and support Intel's
MMX technology. (see Cache)
||Real-time conversation via computer. When a
participant types a line of text and then presses the enter key, that participant's
words appear on the screen of the other participant's screen, who can then
respond in kind.
||The informal term for a data communication
cannel that links computers and permits users to converse by sending text messages
to one another in real time.
||An arrangement used on LANs (local area
networks) that makes use of distributed intelligence to treat both the
server and the individual workstations a intelligent, programmable devices,
thus exploiting the full computing power of each. This is done by
splitting the processing of an application between two distinct
components; a "front-end" client and a "back-end"
server. The client component is a complete, stand-alone personal computer
(not a "dumb" terminal), and it offers the users its full range
of power and features for running applications. The server component can
be a personal computer, a minicomputer, or a mainframe.
||A file whose contents have been compressed by
a special utility program so that it occupies less space on a disk or
other storage device. see pkzip see winzip
||A special text file that controls certin
aspects of operating-system behavior in MS-Dos
||On the World Wide Web, a block of data that a
Web server stores on a client system. When a user returns to the same Web
site, the browser sends a copy of the cookie back to the server. Cookies
are used to identify users, to instruct the server to send a customized
version of the requested Web page, to submit account information for the
user, and for other administrative purposes. Cookies can be removed from
the computer by erasing all files in the c: folder.
(Central Processing Unit)
||The computational and control unit of a
computer. The CPU is the device that interprets and executes instructions.
By definition, the CPU is the chip that functions as the brain of a
||The universe of environments, such as the
internet, in which persons interact by means of connected computers.
||The process of encoding data to prevent
unauthorized access, especially during transmission
||A partial or limited version of a software
package distributed free of charge to use for a period of time. If you
like the software you send the required fee.
||Connection to a data communications network
though a public switched telecommunication network.
||An address of a network connection that
identifies the owner of that address in a hierarchical format. For example
http://www.whitehouse.gov identifies the Web server at the White House.
Domain name addresses, together with IP addresses, are the two forms of
Internet addresses in common use. The top-level domains may be any of
com, edu, gov, int, mil, net, org, a two-letter country code, such as us,
uk, or mx.
||The address of a device connected to the
Internet or any other TCP/IP network, in the hierarchical system that uses
words to identify servers, organizations, and others. see TCP/IC
(Disk Operating System)
||A generic term describing any operating
system that is loaded from disk devices when the system is started or
||In communications, to transfer a copy of a
file from a remote computer to the requesting computer by means of a modem
(Dynamic Random Access Memory)
||A form of semi-conductor random access
memory. Dynamic RAM's store information in integrated circuits containing
capacitors. Because capacitors lose their charge over time, dynamic RAM
boards must include logic to refresh (recharge) the RAM chips
||A hardware device or a program that controls
or regulates another device. A software driver is a device-specific
control program that enables a computer to work with a particular device, such
as a printer or a disk drive.
(Digital Subscriber Line)
(Digital Subscriber Line/Asymmetric Digital
||A digital communications technology that can
provide high-speed transmissions over standard copper telephone wiring.
ADSL is the from most likely to be provided. DSL/ADSL is similar to ISDN
inasmuch as both operate over existing copper telephone lines (POTS) and
both require the short runs to a central telephone office (usually less
than 20,000 feet). However, DSL/ASDL offers much higher speeds - up to 32
Mbps for downstream traffic, and from 32 Kbps to over 1 Mbps for upstream
traffic. see POTS
(Digital Video Disc)
||The next generation of optical disc storage
technology. With digital video disc technology, video, audio, and computer
data can be encoded onto a compact disc.
(Extended Data Output Dynamic Random Access
||A type of DRAM that is faster than
conventional DRAM. Unlike conventional DRAM which can only access one
block of data at a time, EDO DRAM can start fetching the next block of
memory at the same time that it sends the previous block to the CPU.
(Extended Data Out / Random Access Memory)
||A type of dynamic RAM that keeps data
available for the CPU while the next memory access is being initialized,
resulting in increased speed.
||The exchange of text messages and computer
files over a communications network, such as a local area network or the
Internet, usually between computers or terminals.
||A string that identifies a user so that the
user can receive Internet e-mail. An e-mail address typically consists of
a name that identifies the user to the mail server, followed by an @ and
the host name and domain name of the mail server. For example
||E-mail lists are also know as electronic
discussion groups, list-servs or electronic conferences. An electronic
message forwarded to the listserv (software which automatically maintains
the list, short for list server) is electronically copied and distributed
to each of the group's members via e-mail. There are thousands and
thousands of electronic mailing lists on just about every imaginable
topic. Membership of the lists may vary from a handful of people to
||A string of text characters that, when viewed
sideways, form a face expressing a particular emotion. An emoticon is
often used in an e-mail message or newsgroup post as a comment on the text
that precedes it.
Common emoticons include
:-) or : ) I'm smiling
;-) I'm winking and grinning
:-( I'm sad
;-7 I'm speaking tongue in cheek
:-D BIG SMILE or I'm over joyed
:-O either a yawn of boredom or a mouth open in amazement
8-( Unhappy with glasses
8-) Happy with glasses
=|:-)= Uncle Sam
||A set of characters added to a filename that
serves to identify a file as a member of a category ( Example: thefile.doc
the .doc tells us this file can be opened with or is associated with
Microsoft Word). Extensions are used with windows associations see
(Frequently Asked Questions)
||A document listing common questions and
answers on a particular subject.
||When you find a web site you might like to
visit again you can click on the favorites button, then click on add to
favorites. This is like a book mark and allows you to return easily. The
favorites folder is where your list of favorites is kept.
Sharing bookmarks and favorites
Favorites, are a convenient way to organize and link to Web pages that you
visit frequently. If you use Internet Explorer on several computers, you
can easily share favorite items between computers by importing them. Also,
if you use both Internet Explorer and Navigator, you can keep your
favorites and bookmarks up-to-date with each other by importing them
To import bookmarks or favorites, click the File menu, and then click
Import and Export.
To export favorites to bookmarks or favorites on the same or another
computer, click the File menu, and then click Import and Export.
Exported favorites are saved as a regular HTML file, so either Internet
Explorer or Navigator can import them. You can export a selected folder in
your Favorites list, or all of your favorites.
The exported favorites file is fairly small, so if you want to share the
favorite items with other people, you can copy it to a floppy disk or
folder on a network, or attach it to an e-mail message.
||A collection of data or files stored in a
sub-directory. Almost all information stored in a computer must be in a
file. There are many different types of files: data files, text files ,
program files, directory files, and so on. Different types of files store
different types of information. For example, program files store programs,
whereas text files store text. A File Folder is a sub-directory that holds
files. see sub-directory
||The name of a file. Different operating
systems impose different restrictions on filenames. Most operating
systems, for example, prohibit the use of certain characters in a filename
and impose a limit on the length of a filename. In addition, many systems,
including DOS and UNIX, allow a filename extension that consists of one or
more characters following the proper filename. The filename extension
usually indicates what type of file it is. Within a single directory,
filenames must be unique. However, two files in different directories may
have the same name
||This is a command located on the start menu.
It allows you to filed files you have misplaced.
To find a file or folder:
Click Start, point to Find, and then click Files or Folders.
In Named, type all or part of the file name.
Enter a word or phrase in Containing text if you do not know the name
of a file but know a distinctive word or phrase it contains.
If you want to specify the location to start the search, click Browse.
Click Find Now.
||A system designed to prevent unauthorized
access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both
hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently
used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private
networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages
entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines
each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security
criteria. Firewalls should be used by everyone that has a direct
connection to the Internet. A good software firewall is ZoneAlarm. This is
free software from Zone Labs.
||A searing e-mail or newsgroup message in
which the writer attacks another participant in overly harsh, and often
personal, terms. Flames are an unfortunate, but inevitable, element of
||A posting to a mailing list, newsgroup or
other online conference that is likely to provoke flames, often because it
expresses a controversial opinion on a highly emotional subject.
||A person who sends or posts abusive messages
via e-mail, in newsgroups and other online forums.
||In graphical user interfaces such as Windows
and the Macintosh environment, a folder is an object that can contain
multiple documents. Folders are used to organize information. In the DOS
and UNIX worlds, folders are called directories or sub-directories
||Copyrighted software given away for free by
the author. Although it is available for free, the author retains the
copyright, which means that you cannot do anything with it that is not
expressly allowed by the author. Usually, the author allows people to use
the software, but not change or sell it.
(File Transfer Protocol)
||A fast, application-level protocol widely
used for copying files to and from remote computer systems on a network using
TCP/IP, like the Internet. Example LeechFTP allows you to easily upload
web page files you have created.
||The Failed UniBus Address
Register in a VAX. A good example of how jargon can occasionally be
snuck past the suits. Also known as an acronym for Fouled Up
Beyond All Recognition (or other less polite forms)
by a person giving a commentary on a project or the world in general.
Often misspelled FOOBAR by people who don't understand it's source. (see
||Ghost imaging, using ghosting software, is a
method of converting the contents of a hard drive -- including its
configuration settings and applications -- into an image, and then storing
the image on a server or burning it onto a CD. When contents of the hard
drive are needed again, ghosting software converts the image back to
original form. The Ghost program is a product of the Symantic Company and
is included in Nortons Systemworks package.
(Graphics Interchange Format)
||Pronounced jiff or giff (hard g), a
bit-mapped graphics file format used by the World Wide Web, CompuServe and
many BBSs. GIF supports color and various resolutions. It also
includes data compression, making it especially effective for scanned
photos. see JPEG
||One gigabyte is equal to 1,024 megabytes.
Gigabyte is often abbreviated as G or GB
||A graphics board (or graphics card) is a
printed circuit board that, when installed in a computer, permits the
computer to display pictures. see Video Adapter
||The mechanism that reads and writes data on a
hard disk. Hard disk drives (HDDs) for PCs generally have seek times of
about 12 milliseconds or less. Many disk drives improve their performance
through a technique called cacheing. There are several interface standards
for passing data between a hard disk and a computer. The most common are
IDE and SCSI.
||Refers to systems that are organized in the
shape of a pyramid, with each row of objects linked to objects directly
beneath it. Hierarchical systems pervade everyday life. The army, for
example, which has generals at the top of the pyramid and privates at the
bottom, is a hierarchical system. Similarly, the system for classifying
plants and animals according to species, family, genus, and so on, is also
hierarchical. Hierarchical systems are as popular in computer systems as
they are in other walks of life. The most obvious example of a
hierarchical system in computers is a file system, in which directories
have files and subdirectories beneath them. Such a file organization is,
in fact, called a hierarchical file system. In addition to file systems,
many data structures for storing information are hierarchical in form.
Menu-driven programs are also hierarchical, because they contain a root
menu at the top of the pyramid and submenus below it.
||Computer hoaxes are the digital age version
of the chain letter. There are two kinds of computer hoaxes. The "too
good to be true" hoax, and the "doomsday" hoax.
Some popular "too good to be true" hoaxes that are currently in
circulation are things like: "send this e-mail to 10 people and get a
free dinner from Cracker Barrel" or "the XYZ company is testing
it's new e-mail system, for every 10 people that you have send to XYZ you
will get a check for $10.00".
Most "too good to be true" hoaxes have a couple of things in
1. The hoax mentions a popular company that people recognize.
2. The hoax mentions something that is "almost too good to be
3. The hoax includes a "testimonial" from someone who
"swears this is true, honest!".
4. The hoax includes the tag line "Send this to everybody you
5. The hoax mentions something about deleting files!"
** Please remember: If it sounds too good to be true - it probably is. **
||A home page is a web page. In most familiar
terms, it is a personal page for an individual. It can also be the basic
main page for a more complex web site for individuals, organizations, or
web communities. On complex web sites, it is the page which a server will
show when no HTML filename is listed (example: http://www.anyweb.com),
usually with the name index.html, home.html, or default.html or the same
names with the shorter extension .htm. see HTML, HTM)
(HyperText Markup Language)
||The authoring language used to create
documents on the World Wide Web. A page written in HTML is a text file
that includes tags in angle brackets that control the fonts and type
sizes, insertion of graphics, layout of tables and frames, paragraphing,
calls to short runable programs, and hypertext links to other pages. Files
written in HTML generally use an .html or .htm extension. There are
hundreds of other tags used to format and layout the information in a Web
page. Tags are used to specify hypertext links. These allow Web developers
to direct users to other Web pages with only a click of the mouse on
either an image or word(s).
||A common connection point for devices in a
network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub
contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied
to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets.
A passive hub serves simply as a conduit for the data, enabling it to go
from one device (or segment) to another. So-called intelligent hubs
include additional features that enables an administrator to monitor the
traffic passing through the hub and to configure each port in the hub.
Intelligent hubs are also called manageable hubs.
A third type of hub, called a switching hub, actually reads the
destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the
correct port. see Switch, Switching Hub
(Intelligent Drive Electronics or Integrated Drive
||An IDE interface is an interface for mass
storage devices, in which the controller is integrated into the disk or
CD-ROM drive. Although it really refers to a general technology, most
people use the term to refer the ATA specification, which uses this
technology. see ATA
(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
||Pronounced I-triple-E. Founded in 1884 as the
AIEE, the IEEE was formed in 1963 when AIEE merged with IRE. IEEE is an
organization composed of engineers, scientists, and students. The IEEE is
best known for developing standards for the computer and electronics
industry. In particular, the IEEE 802 standards for local-area networks
are widely followed.
||The IEEE standard for high-speed signaling
though a bi-directional parallel computer interface
||A very fast external bus standard that
supports data transfer rates of up to 400 Mbps (400 million bits per
second). Products supporting the 1394 standard go under different names,
depending on the company. Apple, which originally developed the
technology, uses the trademarked name FireWire. Other companies use other
names, such as Ilink and Lynx, to describe their 1394 products. A single
1394 port can be used to connect up 63 external devices. In addition to
its high speed, 1394 also supports isochroous data -- delivering data at a
guaranteed rate. This makes it ideal for devices that need to transfer
high levels of data in real-time, such as video devices. Although
extremely fast and flexible, 1394 is also expensive. Like USB, 1394
supports both Plug-and-Play and hot plugging, and also provides power to
peripheral devices. see USB
||A set of network standards developed by the
IEEE. They include:
IEEE 802.1: Standards related to network management.
IEEE 802.2: General standard for the data link layer in the OSI
Reference Model. The IEEE divides this layer into two sub layers -- the
logical link control (LLC) layer and the media access control (MAC) layer.
The MAC layer varies for different network types and is defined by
standards IEEE 802.3 through IEEE 802.5.
IEEE 802.3: Defines the MAC layer for bus networks that use CSMA/CD.
This is the basis of the Ethernet standard.
IEEE 802.4: Defines the MAC layer for bus networks that use a
token-passing mechanism (token bus networks).
IEEE 802.5: Defines the MAC layer for token-ring networks.
IEEE 802.6: Standard for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs).
||A cable used connect a printer to a PC's
parallel port that adheres to the IEEE 1284 standard. see IEEE 1284
||A stored description of a graphic picture,
either as a set of brightness and color values of pixels or as a set of
instructions for reproducing the picture.
||The mother of all networks. First incarnated
beginning in 1969 as the ARPANET, a U.S. Department of Defense research
testbed. Though it has been widely believed that the goal was to develop a
network architecture for military command-and-control that could survive
disruptions up to and including nuclear war, this is a myth; in fact,
ARPANET was conceived from the start as a way to get most economical use
out of then-scarce large-computer resources. As originally imagined,
ARPANET's major use would have been to support what is now called remote
login and more sophisticated forms of distributed computing, but the
infant technology of electronic mail quickly grew to dominate actual
usage. Universities, research labs and defense contractors early
discovered the Internet's potential as a medium of communication between
humans and linked up in steadily increasing numbers, connecting together a
quirky mix of academics, techies, hippies, SF fans, hackers, and
anarchists. The roots of this lexicon lie in those early years. Thus was
created a global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100
countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions. Unlike
online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is
decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is
independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and
which local services to make available to the global Internet community.
Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well. There are a
variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online services, such as
America Online, offer access to some Internet services. It is also
possible to gain access through a commercial ISP (Internet Service
Provider). Networks interconnect worldwide and use the
Internet Protocol (IP). see IP, ISP)
||Pronounced as two separate letters. IP
specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the addressing
scheme. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual
connection between a destination and a source. IP by itself is something
like the postal system. It allows you to address a package and drop it in
the system, but there's no direct link between you and the recipient.
TCP/IP, on the other hand, establishes a connection between two hosts so
that they can send messages back and forth for a period of time. see
||IP addresses, together with domain addresses
are the two forms of Internet addresses in common use. IP addresses
consist of four numbers between 0 and 255, separated by dots.
(Industry Standard Architecture)
||The bus architecture used in the IBM PC/XT
and PC/AT. It's often abbreviated as ISA (pronounced as separate letters
or as eye-sa) bus. The AT version of the bus is called the AT bus and
became a de facto industry standard. Starting in the early 90s, ISA began
to be replaced by the PCI local bus architecture. Most computers made
today include both an AT bus for slower devices and a PCI bus for devices
that need better bus performance. In 1993, Intel and Microsoft introduced
a new version of the ISA specification called Plug and Play ISA. Plug and
Play ISA enables the operating system to configure expansion boards
automatically so that users do not need to fiddle with DIP switches and
jumpers. see PCI
(Internet Service Provider)
||A company that barely existed before 1993.
ISPs sell Internet access to the mass market. While the big nationwide
commercial BBSs with Internet access (like America Online, CompuServe,
GEnie, Netcom, etc.) are technically ISPs, the term is usually reserved
for national, regional or local providers like Earthlink.net,
Bellsouth.com or Road Runner.com and many others who resell Internet
access cheaply without themselves being information providers.
||Java is a general purpose programming
language with a number of features that make the language well suited for
use on the World Wide Web. Small Java applications are called Java applets
and can be downloaded from a Web server and run on your computer by a
Java-compatible Web browser, such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft
Internet Explorer. A high-level programming language developed by Sun
Microsystems. Java was originally called OAK, and was designed for
handheld devices and set-top boxes. Oak was unsuccessful so in 1995 Sun
changed the name to Java and modified the language to take advantage of
the burgeoning World Wide Web. Java is an object-oriented language similar
to C++, but simplified to eliminate language features that cause common
programming errors. Java source code files (files with a .java extension)
are compiled into a format called bytecode (files with a .class
extension), which can then be executed by a Java interpreter. Compiled
Java code can run on most computers because Java interpreters and runtime
environments, known as Java Virtual Machines (VMs), exist for most
operating systems, including UNIX, the Macintosh OS, and Windows. Bytecode
can also be converted directly into machine language instructions by a
just-in-time compiler (JIT).
||A script language (with little in common with
Java) developed by Netscape for writing short programs embedded in a web
page. It is supported by Netscape from version 2.0 on and Microsoft and
AOL browsers from version 4.0 on. Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0
scripts to your web pages, which are interpreted by your browser.
an extension to HTML and all you need to run it is your browser.
(Joint Photographic Experts Group)
||A graphical format that is widely used in WWW
pages. It is particularly well suited to photographs and 3D or VRML images
where there is a continuous range of colors or shades. It is a lossy
format that can reduce the image in file size by as much as 80 to 90
percent. It does this by reducing the detail in the image. JPEG files use
a .jpg or less commonly, .jpeg or .jpe extension. see GIF
||Keywords are words which describe your topic,
they can be general or specific to your topic. Make a list of possible
keywords before you start a search on the Internet. When you are creating
a web page you will want to add as many keywords as are applicable so
search engines can locate your page. You can also use keywords to create
an open form database. By adding keywords you can search for entries that
do not have a specific field in the database. (see search engines, see
||A thousand bytes (actually 1024 bytes).
(Local Area Network)
||A group of computers, that are physically
connected in a way that lets them communicate and interact with each
||An active connection to another web page,
location in a web page, file, or other Internet resource. Selecting the
link takes you to the new location or resource.
(Media Access Control Address)
||Given to a device in a network. It consists
of a 48-bit hexadecimal number (12 characters). The address is normally
assigned to a device, such as a network card, when it is manufactured
||A computer that holds email messages for
clients on a network. If you have an e-mail account, your e-mail goes to
your service provider's mail server to be held until you are ready to
download it to your computer.
||See E-Mail List
||When used to describe data storage, 1,048,576
bytes. Megabyte is frequently abbreviated as M or MB. Can also be used to
describe data transfer rates, as in MBps, it refers to one million bytes
||One Megahertz or MHz represents one million
cycles per second. The speed of microprocessors, called the clock speed,
is measured in megahertz. For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200
MHz executes 200 million cycles per second. Each computer instruction
requires a fixed number of cycles, so the clock speed determines how many
instructions per second the microprocessor can execute. To a large degree,
this controls how powerful the microprocessor is. Another chief factor in
determining a microprocessor's power is its data width (that is, how many
bits it can manipulate at one time). In addition to microprocessors, the
speeds of buses and interfaces are also measured in MHz.
(Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
||A standard that lets electronic musical
devices communicate with each other. Music stored in MIDI format contains
instructions for playing the music, rather than the digitized audio signal
(Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
||The standard for attaching binary files to
Internet mail messages. Its usage has been extended to identifying and
handling file types encountered by web servers and browsers. Binary types
include audio, video, graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor
documents, executable programs, etc. An email program is said to be MIME
Compliant if it can both send and receive files using MIME. When binary
files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted (encoded) into
text for mailing and then decoded by the receiving mailer. If the
receiving mailer is not MIME compliant, the file is received in encoded
form. You will need to decode the e-mail before you can read it.
||A modem is used between a computer and a
phone or cable line to convert the computer's digital signal to an analog
signal for the phone line and vice versa.
||The main circuit board of a microcomputer.
The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards.
Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage
interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the
controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the
display screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips
that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset. On
most PCs, it is possible to add memory chips directly to the motherboard.
You may also be able to upgrade to a faster PC by replacing the CPU chip.
To add additional core features, you may need to replace the motherboard
||A device that controls the movement of the
cursor or pointer on a display screen. A mouse is a small object you can
roll along a hard, flat surface. Its name is derived from its shape, which
looks a bit like a mouse, its connecting wire that one can imagine to be
the mouse's tail, and the fact that one must make it scurry along a
surface. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the display screen moves in
the same direction. Mice contain at least one button and sometimes as many
as three, which have different functions depending on what program is
running. Some newer mice also include a scroll wheel for scrolling through
long documents. Invented by Douglas Engelbart of Stanford Research Center
in 1963, and pioneered by Xerox in the 1970s, the mouse is one of the
great breakthroughs in computer ergonomics because it frees the user to a
large extent from using the keyboard. In particular, the mouse is
important for graphical user interfaces because you can simply point to
options and objects and click a mouse button. Such applications are often
called point-and-click programs. The mouse is also useful for graphics
programs that allow you to draw pictures by using the mouse like a pen,
pencil, or paintbrush.
There are three basic types of mice:
1. Mechanical: Has a rubber or metal ball on its underside that can
roll in all directions. Mechanical sensors within the mouse detect the
direction the ball is rolling and move the screen pointer accordingly.
2. Optomechanical: Same as a mechanical mouse, but uses optical sensors
to detect motion of the ball.
3. Optical: Uses a laser to detect the mouse's movement. You must move
the mouse along a special mat with a grid so that the optical mechanism
has a frame of reference. Optical mice have no mechanical moving parts.
They respond more quickly and precisely than mechanical and optomechanical
mice, but they are also more expensive.
Mice connect to PCs in one of several ways:
1. Serial mice connect directly to an RS-232C serial port or a PS/2
port. This is the simplest type of connection.
2. PS/2 mice connect to a PS/2 port.
3. USB mice connect to a USB port.
Cordless mice aren't physically connected at all. Instead they rely on
infrared or radio waves to communicate with the computer. Cordless mice
are more expensive than both serial and bus mice, but they do eliminate
the cord, which can sometimes get in the way.
||Nethics is ethics on the net. It is about
behaving as legally and honorably in cyberspace as you would in real time.
Being in cyberspace does not give you immunity from the laws of your own
country, or those of the country you are visiting via computer.
||Contraction of InterNET etIQUETTE,
the etiquette guidelines for posting messages to online services, and
particularly Internet newsgroups. Netiquette covers not only rules to
maintain civility in discussions (i.e., avoiding flames), but also special
guidelines unique to the electronic nature of forum messages. For example,
netiquette advises users to use simple formats because complex formatting
may not appear correctly for all readers. In most cases, netiquette is
enforced by fellow users who will vociferously object if you break a rule
||A newcomer to the nets, who reveals his or
her inexperience by lack of knowledge of net conventions, netiquette,
vocabulary, and know-how. You should have patience with these folks
you were a newbie once yourself.
||Same as forum, an on-line discussion group.
This is the name given to publicly accessible electronic notice or
bulletin boards. The term newsgroup is deceptive in that the discussions
rarely involves "news", they are really topic discussion groups.
On the Internet, there are literally thousands of newsgroups covering
every conceivable interest. To view and post messages to a newsgroup, you
need a news reader, a program that runs on your computer and connects you
to a news server on the Internet. see USENETS
(Network Interface Card )
||An expansion board you insert into a computer
so the computer can be connected to a network. Most NICs are designed for
a particular type of network, protocol, and media, although some can serve
multiple networks. All NIC's are assigned a MAC address at time of
||An IP address is given to the NIC by the
network. This will allow the network to fine the computer when it needs to
send it information. If you know the IP or NIC address and you have
special software you can access your computer from a remote
location. In windows 98 you can find your NIC address with
winifconfig.exe. Start the program then click on the NIC you are
||A packet is a self-contained bundle of data
sent over a packet switching network. Packets are typically less than 1500
bytes in size. Longer files are broken into multiple packets for
transmission and reassembled at the other end. A packet includes a header
with to and from addresses, relation to other packets (sequencing), and
error checking information.
||To divide memory or mass storage into
isolated sections. In DOS systems, you can partition a disk, and each
partition will behave like a separate disk drive. Partitioning is
particularly useful if you run more than one operating system. In
addition, partitioning on DOS and Windows machines can improve disk
efficiency. This is because the FAT system used by these operating systems
automatically assigns cluster size based on the disk size: the larger the
disk, the larger the cluster. Unfortunately, large clusters can result in
a wasted disk space, called slack space. There is an entire sector of the
software industry devoted to building utilities that let you partition
your hard disk.
Soft partitioning, on the other hand, does not physically affect the disk
at all, but it fools the Finder into believing that the disk is
partitioned. The advantage of this is that you can partition the disk
without affecting the data on it. With hard partitioning, it is usually
necessary to reformat the entire disk.
||A secret word or code which you need together
with your user id, to connect to your account, or to another computer on
the Internet. It is important for security reasons to keep your password
secret, you should also ensure that your passwords are not easy to guess,
so don't use your own name. Passwords are important to protect the privacy
of your information.
||In file storage, the route followed by the
operating system though the drives and directories in finding, sorting,
and retrieving files on a disk or network.
||see PCI Local Bus
(Peripheral Component Interconnect Local Bus)
||A local bus standard developed by Intel
Corporation. Most modern PCs include a PCI bus in addition to a more
general ISA expansion bus. Many analysts, however, believe that PCI will
eventually supplant ISA entirely. PCI is a 64-bit bus, though it is
usually implemented as a 32-bit bus. It can run at clock speeds of 33 or
66 MHz. At 32 bits and 33 MHz, it yields a throughput rate of 133 MBps.
Although it was developed by Intel, PCI is not tied to any particular
family of microprocessors.
||Adobe's Page Description Format also call
Portable Document Format. It is often used as a format which allows much
more complete, controlled layout of a page and its graphics and text than
conventional HTML does. It requires a browser plug-in to see a web page in
PDF format. To create a page in PDF format, you need Adobe Acrobat, not
the free Acrobat Reader.
||A 32-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel
in 1993. It contains 3.3 million transistors, nearly triple the number
contained in its predecessor, the 80486 chip. Though still in production,
the Pentium processor has been superseded by the Pentium Pro and Pentium
II microprocessors. Since 1993, Intel has developed the Pentium III and
more recently the Pentium 4 microprocessors.
(Platform for Internet Content Selection)
||A model for associating labels with content
in header metadata, originally devised to help parents and teachers and
filtering software control children's access to the net. See the
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) PICS Page for further information.
||One of the most widely used file compression
methods. PKZIP was developed by PKWARE, Inc. in 1989 and distributed as
shareware. Files that have been compressed using PKWARE are said to be
zipped. Decompressing them is called unzipping.
The PK stands for Phillip Katz, the author of the programs. You can
download a fully functional evaluation version from the PKZip Download
|Plug and Play
||Refers to the ability of a computer system to
automatically configure expansion boards and other devices. You should be
able to plug in a device and play with it, without worrying about setting
DIP switches, jumpers, and other configuration elements. The Plug and Play
(PnP) specification has made PCs more plug-and-play, although it doesn't
always work as advertised.
(Point Of Presence)
||A Point of Presence usually refers to a city
or location where a network can be connected to. For example, if an ISP or
other Internet company says they have a POP in Vancouver, this means they
have a local telephone number in Vancouver and/or a place where leased
lines can connect to their network. see ISP
(Post Office Protocol)
||A protocol for client-server e-mail systems.
If you are using software like Eudora or Pegasus or the mail clients in
Netscape or Microsoft Iinternet Explorer, your address to collect mail
often will begin with pop. For example, Delphi e-mail accounts use an
address of pop.delphi.com to collect mail.
||A post is a message you send via email to an
email list or discussion group
(Power On Self Test)
||A series of diagnostic tests that run
automatically when you turn your computer on. The actual tests can differ
depending on how the BIOS is configured, but usually the POST tests the
RAM, the keyboard, and the disk drives. If the tests are successful, the
computer boots itself. If the tests are unsuccessful, the computer reports
the error by emitting a series of beeps and possibly displaying an error
message and code on the display screen. The number of beeps indicates the
error, but differs from one BIOS to another.
(Plain Old Telephone Service)
||Which refers to the standard telephone
service that most homes use. In contrast, telephone services based on
high-speed, digital communications lines, such as ISDN and FDDI, are not
POTS. The main distinctions between POTS and non-POTS services are speed
and bandwidth. POTS is generally restricted to about 52 Kbps (52,000 bits
per second). The POTS network is also called the public switched telephone
||The component that supplies power to a
computer. Most personal computers can be plugged into standard electrical
outlets. The power supply then pulls the required amount of electricity
and converts the AC current to DC current. It also regulates the voltage
to eliminate spikes and surges common in most electrical systems. Not all
power supplies, however, do an adequate voltage-regulation job, so a
computer is always susceptible to large voltage fluctuations. Power
supplies are rated in terms of the number of watts they generate. The more
powerful the computer, the more watts it can provide to components. In
general, 200 watts should be sufficient.
(Point to Point Protocol)
||Point to Point Protocol. Along with the older
SLIP, a protocol that is used with a dialup to complete a TCP/IP network
connection from a remote site.
||Short for microprocessor. A silicon chip that
contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the terms
microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. At the heart of all
personal computers and most workstations sits a microprocessor.
Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from
clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles.
Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors:
1. Instruction set: The set of instructions that the microprocessor can
2. bandwidth : The number of bits processed in a single instruction.
3. clock speed : Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock speed determines how
many instructions per second the processor can execute.
In addition to bandwidth and clock speed, microprocessors are classified
as being either RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)
or CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer).
The higher the value, the more powerful the CPU. For example, a 32-bit
microprocessor that runs at 50MHz is more powerful than a 16-bit
microprocessor that runs at 25MHz. see CPU
||A standard for the exchange of information.
Different computers and operating systems and software are able to
communicate with each other on the Internet, because of the adoption of
(Random Access Memory)
||Pronounced ramm. A type of computer memory
that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed
without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of
memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers.
There are two basic types of RAM:
1. dynamic RAM (DRAM)
2. static RAM (SRAM)
The two types differ in the technology they use to hold data, dynamic RAM
being the more common type. Dynamic RAM needs to be refreshed thousands of
times per second. Static RAM does not need to be refreshed, which makes it
faster; but it is also more expensive than dynamic RAM. Both types of RAM
are volatile, meaning that they lose their contents when the power is
In common usage, the term RAM is synonymous with main memory, the memory
available to programs. For example, a computer with 32M RAM has
approximately 32 million bytes of memory that programs can use. In
contrast, ROM (read-only memory) refers to special memory used to store
programs that boot the computer and perform diagnostics. Most personal
computers have a small amount of ROM (a few thousand bytes). In fact, both
types of memory (ROM and RAM) allow random access. To be precise,
therefore, RAM should be referred to as read/write RAM and ROM as
(Read Only Memory)
||Pronounced rahm. Computer memory on which
data has been prerecorded. Once data has been written onto a ROM chip, it
cannot be removed and can only be read. Unlike main memory (RAM), ROM
retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. ROM is referred
to as being nonvolatile, whereas RAM is volatile. Most personal computers
contain a small amount of ROM that stores critical programs such as the
program that boots the computer. In addition, ROMs are used extensively in
calculators and peripheral devices such as laser printers, whose fonts are
often stored in ROMs. A variation of a ROM is a PROM (programmable
read-only memory). PROMs are manufactured as blank chips on which data can
be written with a special device called a PROM programmer.
||The top directory in a file system. The root
directory is provided by the operating system and has a special name; for
example, in DOS systems the root directory is called \ or backslash.
For the root directory of the C drive this would be shown as c:\. The root
directory is sometimes referred to simply as the root. see \ or
||A router connects networks together,
controlling the routing of packets from source to destination and
providing alternate paths when necessary. Routers are more sophisticated
than bridges, connecting networks of different types (for example, star
and token ring), and making logical routing decisions on the basis of
available data. Typically a router hands off packets to another router
along the path until the destination is reached.
(Rich Text Format)
||A standard formalized by Microsoft
Corporation for specifying formatting of documents. RTF formatting allows
you to copy files between programs that do not have a common file format,
like Word and Lotus 123. RTF files are actually ASCII files with special
commands to indicate formatting information, such as fonts and margins.
Other document formatting languages include the Hypertext Markup Language
(HTML), which is used to define documents on the World Wide Web, and the
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), which is a more robust
version of HTML
(Read The Fabulous Manual)
||or other words to that effect. A
commonly used abbreviation in online forums and email, in response to
foolish questions or questions already answered in the FAQ. see FAQ
(Small Computer System Interface or Small
Computer Standard Interface)
||Pronounced "scuzzy," SCSI is a
parallel interface standard used by Apple Macintosh computers, PCs, and
many UNIX systems for attaching peripheral devices to computers. Nearly
all Apple Macintosh computers, excluding only the earliest Macs and the
recent iMac, come with a SCSI port for attaching devices such as disk
drives and printers SCSI interfaces provide for faster data transmission
rates (up to 80 megabytes per second) than standard serial and parallel
ports. In addition, you can attach many devices to a single SCSI port, so
that SCSI is really an I/O bus rather than simply an interface. Although
SCSI is an ANSI standard, there are many variations of it, so two SCSI
interfaces may be incompatible. For example, SCSI supports several types
of connectors. Other interfaces supported by PCs include enhanced IDE and
ESDI for mass storage devices, and Centronics for printers. You can,
however, attach SCSI devices to a PC by inserting a SCSI board in one of
the expansion slots. Many high-end new PCs come with SCSI built in. Note,
however, that the lack of a single SCSI standard means that some devices
may not work with some SCSI boards.
The following varieties of SCSI are currently implemented:
SCSI-1: Uses an 8-bit bus, and supports data rates of 4 MBps
SCSI-2: Same as SCSI-1, but uses a 50-pin connector instead of a 25-pin
connector, and supports multiple devices. This is what most people mean
when they refer to plain SCSI.
Wide SCSI: Uses a wider cable (168 cable lines to 68 pins) to support
Fast SCSI: Uses an 8-bit bus, but doubles the clock rate to support data
rates of 10 MBps.
Fast Wide SCSI: Uses a 16-bit bus and supports data rates of 20 MBps.
Ultra SCSI: Uses an 8-bit bus, and supports data rates of 20 MBps.
SCSI-3: Uses a 16-bit bus and supports data rates of 40 MBps. Also called
Ultra Wide SCSI.
Ultra2 SCSI: Uses an 8-bit bus and supports data rates of 40 MBps.
Wide Ultra2 SCSI: Uses a 16-bit bus and supports data rates of 80 MBps.
||In Windows 98 you can search for files
located on your storage devices by using the find function. Click on
the start button on the desk top then click on find. If you are looking
for a file you have misplaced click on files or folders. In the named
section type the file name. If you are looking for more than one file you
can use wildcards. In the lookin box type the letter of the drive you are
wanting to search. Make sure the include subfolders is checked. Then press
Find Now. see wildcards
||A utility that will search the Internet, an
Intranet, a site, or a database for terms that you select. Search engines
on the web consist of four elements:
1. a program that roams the area to be searched, collecting data
records (typically, web pages) and links to more data. These are variously
known as spiders, worms, crawlers, or other colorful names.
2. Commercial databases, on the other hand, may collect data records in
other ways, such as systematically entering the full text of newspapers or
3. A database or collection of records recovered by the spiders or other
type of collector an index of the database collected to enable fast access
to terms that you search for and their supporting records.
4. Indexes may be enhanced by controlled vocabularies.
Each of the major search engines differs in its approach to these four
||Software that is offered for free for
downloading in hopes that the user will decide to keep it and pay a fee
for it after trying it out.
(Serial Line Internet Protocol)
||SLIP and PPP are two different types of
software used to connect a computer to another computer via a modem. When
you run either SLIP or PPP software on your computer to connect to your
ISP's (Internet Service Provider) computer, then for the duration of the
connection, you are assigned an IP address and become part of the
Internet. see ISP
||An expansion board that enables a computer to
manipulate and output sounds. Sound cards are necessary for nearly all
CD-ROMs and have become commonplace on modern personal computers. Sound
cards enable the computer to output sound through speakers connected to
the board, to record sound input from a microphone connected to the
computer, and manipulate sound stored on a disk. Nearly all sound cards
support MIDI, a standard for representing music electronically. In
addition, most sound cards are Sound Blaster-compatible, which means that
they can process commands written for a Sound Blaster card, the de facto
standard for PC sound. Sound cards use two basic methods to translate
digital data into analog sounds:
FM Synthesis mimics different musical instruments according to built-in
Wavetable Synthesis relies on recordings of actual instruments to
produce sound. Wavetable synthesis produces more accurate sound, but is
also more expensive.
||Flooding message boards, newsgroups, mailing
lists, or your mailbox with off topic messages usually ads or promotions
or deliberate disruptions. It is a major violation of netiquette, and it
violates member agreements in most places and can lead to account
cancellation. The term was inspired by an old Monty Python sketch about a
repetitive menu with spam, spam, eggs, and spam.
(Static Random Access Memory)
||Pronounced ess-ram. SRAM is a type of memory
that is faster and more reliable than the more common DRAM (dynamic RAM).
The term static is derived from the fact that it doesn't need to be
refreshed like dynamic RAM. While DRAM supports access times of about 60
nanoseconds, SRAM can give access times as low as 10 nanoseconds. In
addition, its cycle time is much shorter than that of DRAM because it does
not need to pause between accesses. Unfortunately, it is also much more
expensive to produce than DRAM. Due to its high cost, SRAM is often used
only as a memory cache
|Start Up Disk
||A diskette from which you can boot your
computer. Normally, your computer boots from a hard disk, but if the hard
disk is damaged (for example, by a virus), you can boot the computer from
a bootable diskette. With the startup disk you can get your files even if
windows will not boot. For this reason, it's a good idea to make sure you
always have a bootable diskette on hand. In Windows 98, you can create a
bootable diskette by following these steps:
1.Insert a blank, formatted diskette in the floppy drive
2. Select Start->Settings->Control Panel
3. Open Add/Remove Programs
4. Select the Startup Disk tab and press the Create Disk… button.
||A directory below another directory. Every
directory except the root directory is a subdirectory. In Windows 98 and
Windows/NT, subdirectories are called folders.
||(1) In networks, a device that filters and
forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches operate at the data link
layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI
Reference Model and therefore support any packet protocol. LANs that use
switches to join segments are called switched LANs or, in the case of
Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs.
The difference between a hub and a switch is very important. A hub
allow you to connect many computers together but it shares the
bandwidth. If you have 4 machines connected to a 100 mbs system the
available bandwidth is divided between the 4 computers giving each machine
25 mbs. A switch does not divide the bandwidth, each computers gets
a full 100 mbs
(2) A small lever or button. The switches on the back of printers and
on expansion boards are called DIP switches. A switch that has just two
positions is called a toggle switch.
(3) Another word for option or parameter -- a symbol that you add to a
command to modify the command's behavior.
||Short for port-switching hub, a special type
of hub that forwards packets to the appropriate port based on the packet's
address. Conventional hubs simply rebroadcast every packet to every port.
Since switching hubs forward each packet only to the required port, they
provide much better performance. Most switching hubs also support load
balancing, so that ports are dynamically reassigned to different LAN
segments based on traffic patterns.
Some newer switching hubs support both traditional Ethernet (10 Mbps)
and Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) ports. This enables the administrator to
establish a dedicated, Fast Ethernet channel for high-traffic devices such
||A program for Windows products by Peter
Norton and sold by Symantec. This program help fixes many problems
that occur with windows. If your computer won't shut off properly or
if there is an error message that keeps recurring, this program can help.
||A digital communications circuit that
transmits at 1.54 Mbps.
||A digital communications circuit that
transmits at 45 Mbps.
||In reference to web pages, a tag is an HTML
command used in laying out a web page and providing links to resources.
(There Ain'g No Such Thing As A
||From Robert Heinlein's The Moon Is a Harsh
Mistress. Used in connection with the Internet.
(Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
||The protocols that are the basis for
transmitting and routing data packets on the Internet. The Internet
Protocol is the one thing that all current Internet sites have in common.
The basic TCP/IP model has five layers of interaction:
1. Physical or Data Transport Layer. This most basic layer moves data
over cables based on the physical address of each Network Interface Card (NIC).
The most common types are ethernet and token ring.
2. Data Link Layer. This layer frames the packets of data that are sent
through the network. PPP, frame relay, and X.25 operate at this layer.
Bridges connect local networks at this layer.
3. Network or Internet Protocol Layer. This layer puts an Internet
Protocol wrapper around the data with source and destination addresses in
its header. Routers, which connect networks together, operate at this
4. Transport Layer. This layer governs the setting of suitable packet
sizes, segmenting and reassembling data, detection of errors, and flow
5. Application Layer. This layer provides for standard interfaces for such
functions as message handling and file transfer and remote login. It
allows, for example, for different e-mail programs to be used, as long as
they conform to the standard interface.
||A protocol that lets you log in to a remote
computer and use programs and data that the remote owner has made
available, just as if it were your local computer. For more information
and examples, see the Telnet FAQ.
(The End Of The World As We
||This is usually heard soon after your
Information Technologist has said we can not convert the existing data or
NO I can not get that file back or NO the hard drive is not going to be
||A thousand Gigabytes.
||An oft-told tale on the Internet that is
untrue, but refuses to die. They keep reappearing in newsgroups, e-mail
discussion lists, and message bases. The stories themselves are
interesting and when newcomers read them for the first time, they are
often passed along as fact. They may have been once true as in the Craig
Shergold get-well card story, a hoax like the GOOD TIMES VIRUS, or a joke,
like the expensive Neiman-Marcus cookie recipe. They often appear with
variations, so that get-well cards become business cards, or Neiman-Marcus
becomes Mrs. Fields instead.
(Uniform Resource Locator)
||The standard method of giving the address for
any resource on the WWW. A URL might look like this: http://www.example.com/examples.html.
The most common use of a URL is to enter it in a web browser to access
that page on the Internet. Every page on the Internet has a unique
identifying address or URL. If you already know the URL of a useful site,
then simply type that address in the address bar at the top of the browser
screen and press Enter and you will be taken directly to that site.
(Universal Serial Bus)
||An external bus standard that supports data
transfer rates of 12 Mbps. A single USB port can be used to connect up to
127 peripheral devices, such as mice, modems, and keyboards. USB also
supports Plug-and-Play installation and hot plugging. Starting in 1996, a
few computer manufacturers started including USB support in their new
machines. It is expected to completely replace serial and parallel ports.
||A distributed bulletin board system that runs
on news servers, UNIX hosts, online services and bulletin board systems.
Collectively, USENET is made up of all the users who post to and read
newsgroup articles. The USENET is the largest decentralized information
utility available today.
(Unshielded Twisted Pair)
||A popular type of cable that consists of
multi-pair unshielded wires twisted around each other. Due to its low
cost, UTP cabling is used extensively for local-area networks (LANs) and
telephone connections. UTP cabling does not offer as high bandwidth or as
good protection from interference as coaxial or fiber optic cables, but it
is less expensive and easier to work with
||Virtual Address eXtension.
The most successful minicomputer design in industry history, possibly
excepting its immediate ancestor, the PDP-11. Between its release in 1978
and its eclipse by micro computers after about 1986.
||A board that plugs into a personal computer
to give it display capabilities. The display capabilities of a computer,
however, depend on both the logical circuitry (provided in the video
adapter) and the display monitor. A monochrome monitor, for example,
cannot display colors no matter how powerful the video adapter. Many
different types of video adapters are available for PCs. Most conform to
one of the video standards defined by IBM or VESA. Each adapter offers
several different video modes. The two basic categories of video modes are
text and graphics. In text mode, a monitor can display only ASCII
characters. In graphics mode, a monitor can display any bit-mapped image.
Within the text and graphics modes, some monitors also offer a choice of
resolutions. At lower resolutions a monitor can display more colors. Most
adapters have their own graphics coprocessor for performing graphics
calculations. These adapters are often called graphics accelerators. Video
adapters are also called video cards, video boards, video display boards,
graphics cards and graphics adapters.
||An imaginary memory area supported by some
operating systems (for example, Windows but not DOS) in conjunction with
the hardware. You can think of virtual memory as an alternate set of
memory addresses. Programs use these virtual addresses rather than real
addresses to store instructions and data. When the program is actually
executed, the virtual addresses are converted into real memory addresses.
The purpose of virtual memory is to enlarge the address space, the set of
addresses a program can utilize. For example, virtual memory might contain
twice as many addresses as main memory. A program using all of virtual
memory, therefore, would not be able to fit in main memory all at once.
Nevertheless, the computer could execute such a program by copying into
main memory those portions of the program needed at any given point during
execution. To facilitate copying virtual memory into real memory, the
operating system divides virtual memory into pages, each of which contains
a fixed number of addresses. Each page is stored on a disk until it is
needed. When the page is needed, the operating system copies it from disk
to main memory, translating the virtual addresses into real addresses. The
process of translating virtual addresses into real addresses is called
mapping. The copying of virtual pages from disk to main memory is known as
paging or swapping.
||A program or piece of code that is loaded
onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes.
Viruses can also replicate themselves. All computer viruses are manmade. A
simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is
relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because
it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt.
An even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of transmitting itself
across networks and bypassing security systems. Since 1987, when a virus
infected ARPANET, a large network used by the Defense Department and many
universities, many antivirus programs have become available. These
programs periodically check your computer system for the best-known types
of viruses. Some people distinguish between general viruses and worms. A
worm is a special type of virus that can replicate itself and use memory,
but cannot attach itself to other programs. see Worm
||Waveform Audio. A common audio file format
for DOS and Windows computers (.wav).
||A Web browser is the software program that
you use to view WWW pages. There are several available, two of them are
Netscape and Microsoft's Internet Explorer. You are probably using a
graphical browser because this allows you to view pictures as well as
||A document on the World Wide Web. Every Web
page is identified by a unique URL or address. see URL
||In the World Wide Web (WWW) a web site is a
computer system that runs a Web server, and has been set up for publishing
documents on the Web.
||An Internet utility that you can use to look
up information about an Internet site in the registry database at Internic
or elsewhere. You can enter a name like Delphi, a domain address like
delphi.com, or a full or partial IP address and get information on the
site's name, address, points of contact, etc. The utility can be run with
your own PPP or net account, or most shell accounts, or you can use the
Network Solutions Whois web page for domain names and the American
Registry of Internet Numbers (ARIN) for IP addresses. There are also WHOIS
servers in Europe (RIPE), Australia, and Asia-Pacific Network Information
Center (ARIN). Many more WHOIS servers are maintained for particular
organizations. A very complete list of Internet WHOIS servers is kept at
MIT. WS-FTP Pro, an excellent shareware FTP program, also provides whois
and other utilities in its package.
||A special symbol that stands for one or more
characters. Many operating systems and applications support wildcards for
identifying files and directories. This enables you to select multiple
files with a single specification. For example, in DOS and Windows, the
asterisk (*) is a wild card that stands for any combination of letters.
The file specification
therefore, refers to all files that begin with m. Similarly, the
refers to all files that start with m and end with.doc.
Many word processors also support wild cards for performing text
||A program used to help with problems with
Windows. Program is included in SystemWorks.
||A compressed file format (.zip). Many files
available on the Internet are compressed or "zipped" in order to
reduce storage space and transfer times. WinZip makes it easy for Windows
users to work with archives. WinZip features an intuitive point-and-click
drag-and-drop interface for viewing, running, extracting, adding,
deleting, and testing files in archives with a standard Windows interface.
WinZip provides the same "friendly face" for all the
aforementioned archive formats. You can download a fully functional
evaluation version from the WinZip Download Page. http://www.winzip.com
||1. A person who knows how a complex piece of
software or hardware works, especially someone who can find and fix bugs
quickly in an emergency.
2. The term wizard is also used for someone who has extremely a high-level
of problem-solving ability.
3. A person who is permitted to do things forbidden to ordinary people;
one who has admin privileges on a system. The extra Z is an
indication of an especially laid back person under fire.
see guru, geek, alpha geek, lord high fixer, oh so deep magic, heavy
wizardry, incantations, magic spells, rain dance, wave a dead chicken and
many many more.
||A self-replicating program that reproduces
itself over a network. The most famous worm is the one created by Robert
Morris at Cornell that shut down many unix computers on the Internet in
1988. Currently making the rounds is a Windows worm named happy99.exe (or
Trojan-Happy99 or I-Worm.Happy) that masquerades as a fireworks show,
replaces your wsock32.dll file, and sends copies of itself along with
e-mail or news messages you post. For more on this and how to remove it,
see the Symantec Anti-Virus Research Center.
(World Wide Web)
||This is a global hyper-text-based information
system which allows users to explore that Internet around the world. It is
an attempt to organize all documents on the Internet as a set of hypertext
documents which are searched via "links". These links are to
other files on the same computer or to files held on another computer. The
technical definition of the WWW is the global network of hypertext (HTTP)
servers that allow text, graphics, audio and video files to be mixed
together. The second, more loosely used definition is the entire range of
resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET,
WAIS, and other such tools
(What You See Is What You Get)
||Pronounced WIZZYWIG. The term applies
to word processors and web page development software where you manipulate
text and images directly without writing codes (such as HTML or dot codes)
for each attribute.
||A compressed file. Many files available on
the Internet are compressed or "zipped" in order to reduce
storage space and transfer times. Use PKZIP, WinZip or another program to
unzip the file
||ZTreeWin is a text-mode file/directory
manager for all versions of Windows 98 and later (ME,NT,2000 and XP).
It has been developed as the successor to the legendary DOS
file-manager XTreeGold (tm), which its owners have abandoned in today's
GUI-centric computing world.
Anyone who has used this remarkable program will be aware of its
superior capabilities as a text-mode, tree-structured file-manager - but
will also likely be aware that its limited memory support, and lack of
long filename support are today a major issue. ZTreeWin is a 32-bit
Windows program that has been developed to provide all the powerful
functionality of the past, (and much more!), while avoiding the
limitations of the old DOS-based program. A few advantages of ZTreeWin:
1. No 640K memory barrier...log an unlimited number of disks and files
2. Support for long file and directory names
3. Full support of third-party archivers, with most popular programs
pre-configured out of the box.